Dementia : Definition, Symptoms and causes

Untitled Design 1440X810 1

Dementia is a phrase that refers to a set of disorders that impact your remembering, reasoning, and social capabilities to the point where they impede your regular activities. Dementia is not due to a single disease, but many of them can cause it. Memory loss is a usual symptom of Dementia, but several factors can cause it. 

Memory loss is not always a marker of Dementia. However, it is one of the first symptoms. Hypertension is the most prevalent cause of increasing Dementia in older people, but other conditions can also cause Dementia. Some symptoms of Dementia may be curable, regardless of the reason.


Symptoms of Dementia vary depending on the etiology. However, some frequent ones include:

Changes in Cognition

  • Somebody else usually notices your memory loss.
  • You find it challenging to communicate or find the right words.
  • Difficulty with visual as well as spatial abilities, such as getting lost when driving; Difficulty with thinking or problem-solving; Difficulty with complex activities
  • Planning and organizing, Difficulties with coordination and motor functions
  • Perplexity and disorientation

Changes in Mental Health

  • Personality morphs
  • Despair
  • Anxious
  • Inappropriate conduct
  • Fear
  • Agitation 
  • Hallucinations

When Should You See a Doctor?

If you or the person you love is encountering memory problems or other dementia symptoms, see a doctor. Different treatable medical disorders can cause dementia symptoms, so it is critical to figure out what is causing them.


Alteration or destruction of nerve fibers and their interconnections in the brain occasions Dementia. Dementia affects individuals differently and causes distinct signs depending on which part of the brain is destroyed. Dementia are often classified according to what they have in general, such as the protein or protein stored in the brain or the affected brain region. Some disorders, such as those occasioned by pharmaceutical reactions or vitamin shortages, resemble dementia, and may improve with therapy.

Dementia that progress

The following are examples of dementias that develop and are not reversible:

The most common cause of Dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. While not all reasons for Alzheimer’s disease are recognized, doctors know that abnormalities in three genes, which can be handed on from parent to child, are linked to a tiny number of cases. While numerous genes are implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, apolipoprotein E4 is one essential gene that raises risk (APOE).

The sick with Alzheimer’s ailment have neurofibrillary snarls in their cerebrum. Markers are threadlike snarls built of tau, while snarls are collections of a beta-amyloid protein. These aggregates are thought to harm healthy synapses and the fibers that link them. The most prevalent root cause of Dementia is Alzheimer’s disease.

What is the Distinction Between Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia?

Dementia is a term that describes the state of a person’s mental function rather than an illness. Dementia is an “umbrella term” for the severe mental deterioration that impedes daily activities.

Alzheimer’s disease, as well as Parkinson’s disease, are just two of the basic types of Dementia. 

Vascular Dementia is a Dementia that affects the blood vessels. Disruption to the vessels that carry blood to the brain causes this sort of Dementia. Blood artery abnormalities can lead to strokes or have other effects on the brain, such as harming the white matter fibers. Problem-solving difficulties, sluggish thinking, and a loss of focus and organization are the most prevalent symptoms of Vascular Dementia. These are usually more visible than memory loss.

Dementia With Lewy Bodies

Lewy bodies are aberrant balloon-like protein clumps discovered in the brains of persons who have Dementia with Lewy bodies, Alzheimer’s disease, or Parkinson’s disease. One of the most common forms of progressive Dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. Acting out one’s dreams while taking a nap, seeing things that are not there, and problems with focus as well as attention are all common indicators and symptoms. Lack of coordination or slow movement, spasms, and stiffness are some of the other symptoms (parkinsonism).

Frontotemporal Dementia is a type of Dementia that affects the frontal lobe. The destruction of nerve cells and their interconnections in the prefrontal and temporal lobe characterizes this category of illnesses. These are the brain segments linked to personality, behavior, and language. Behavior, personality, thinking, judgment, language, and mobility are all affected by common symptoms.

Dementia With a Mix of Symptoms  

According to autopsy investigations of their brains, many persons with Dementia aged 80 and up had a combination of causes, such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular Dementia, and Lewy body dementia. Mixed Dementia is the subject of continuing research to see how it impacts symptoms and treatments.

Other Dementia-related Illnesses

Huntington’s disease is a neurological disorder. This condition, induced by a gene variant, causes the death of specific nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Around 30 or 40, signs and symptoms such as a severe loss of reasoning (cognitive) skills occur.

Intracranial injury mundane concussion is the usual root of this ailment. Intracranial injury can act on soccer players, fighters as well as soldiers. This derangement can cause signs of mental illness such as unhappiness, annoyance, forgetfulness, and shrouding, reliant on which brain area is affected. A traumatic brain injury can also cause Parkinsonism. Symptoms may not manifest for years after the trauma has occurred.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseaseis an uncommon brain illness that frequently strikes patients with no recognized risk factors. This disorder could be occasioned by prions, which are infectious proteins. Symptoms and signs of this deadly disease often arise after 60. The etiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is unknown, but it can be hereditary. Exposure to the sick brain or central nervous tissue, such as after a cornea transplant, can also cause it.

Parkinson’s diseaseis a neurological disorder. Symptoms of Dementia (Parkinson’s disease dementia) affect many persons with Parkinson’s disease.

What Are the Elements That Place You at Risk for Dementia?

Dementia has several established risk factors. Some factors just marginally enhance a person’s risk, while others significantly increase the likelihood of developing the condition. 


The most critical risk factor for mental illness is getting older. 

As individual ages, their likelihood of having mental illness rises. Mental illness attacks two of a hundred grownups aging sixty-five to sixty-nine. As an individual age, their likelihood rises, nearly increasing every 5 years. This indicates that about 33 out of every 100 adults over the age of 90 have Dementia. Since mental illness can take longer to develop, age is a risk factor. This is because disorders that harm the brain, such as Alzheimer’s disease or vascular disease, produce Dementia. 

These disorders can take several years to harm the brain enough to induce dementia symptoms. This indicates that the longer someone lives, the more likely they will get Dementia. 

Because an older adult is likely to be contending with other changes and medical conditions that can increase their risk, age is also a risk factor for Dementia. 

An older person, for example, is more prone to have 

  • High blood pressure.
  • Damaged, twisted, or occluded blood arteries in the brain.
  • a higher risk of finding a stroke
  • Brain cells that are not as active as they are in younger people.
  • a reduced ability to heal from injuries


Specific genes can be handed down (inherited) from a parent and influence a person’s risk of developing Dementia. These genes are divided into ‘familial’ genetics and ‘risk’ factors. If dementia-causing genes are passed down from a parent to a child, the child will certainly get Dementia. 

If one parent carries a family gene, their child has a one-in-two risk of acquiring it and getting Dementia in their 50s and 60s. 

For most kinds of Dementia, familial genes are highly infrequent. 

On the other hand, these genes may be responsible for one out of every three occurrences of frontotemporal Dementia, a less prevalent type of Dementia. Dementia risk genes raise an individual’s likelihood of developing the disease. They are far more prevalent than inherited genes. Unlike familial relationships, however, Dementia is not usually caused by a person’s genes or risk genes. So far, more than 20 risk genes have been discovered, most of which are only found in women, and they increase a person’s chance of Dementia by a small amount.

A person’s ability to cope with brain dysfunction is called “cognitive reserve.” It is built up over a person’s lifespan by keeping the brain busy. The greater a person’s cognitive reserve is, the longer it takes for any brain illnesses to cause issues with daily tasks. This indicates that persons with a higher cognitive reserve can put off the onset of dementia symptoms for longer. 

A Mental Reserve

People with a lower cognitive reserve are more likely to develop Dementia later in life. The following are the three most critical causes that can contribute to a decrease in cognitive reserve:

Early school leaversare probable to have a lower cognitive reserve than those who stayed in full-time schooling for a more extended period or maintained learning throughout their lives.

Lower job complexity: a person with a smaller cognitive reserve is more likely to have not used a variety of mental abilities throughout their working life, such as memory, thinking, solving problems, communication, and organizational skills.

Social isolation: A individual who has not engaged with other people frequently throughout their life may have a lower cognitive reserve. This suggests that these elements are also dementia risk factors.

Gender and Sex

Overall, women have Dementia at a higher rate than males. This is primarily because women live longer than men. Both men and women have almost equal chances of developing Dementia. Women over the age of 80, on the other hand, have a higher risk of Dementia than men their age. The reasons why women over the age of 80 have a higher dementia risk than men over the age of 80 are unknown. It is possible that over time, variances in these women’s and men’s lifestyles have resulted in differences in their risk levels. Women in this age bracket, for example, may have had less access to school and employment prospects than men their age.

Separate from gender, there has been concern that sex hormone levels around menopause may influence an individual’s likelihood of mental illness. The evidence, in this case, is still inconclusive. The levels of estrogen and progesterone in a woman’s body decrease as she approaches menopause. According to several studies, the earlier this occurs in a person’s life, the greater their chance of Dementia.